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RFC 826 http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc826
RFC 1293 http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1293
RFC 2390 http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2390
RFC 1390 http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1390

TCP/IP uses the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) and the Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP) to initialize the use of Internet addressing on an Ethernet or other network that uses its own media access control (MAC). ARP allows a host to communicate with other hosts when only the Internet address of its neighbors is known. Before using IP, the host sends a broadcast ARP request containing the Internet address of the desired destination system.

The ARP/RARP header structure is shown in the illustration below.

16
32 bits

Hardware Type

Protocol Type

HLen (8)

Plen (8)

Operation

Sender Hardware Address

Sender Protocol Address

Target Hardware Address

Target Protocol Address

ARP/RARP header structure

Hardware type
Specifies a hardware interface type for which the sender requires a response.

Protocol type
Specifies the type of high-level protocol address the sender has supplied.

HLen
Hardware address length.

PLen
Protocol address length.

Operation
The values are as follows:

1 ARP request.
2 ARP response.
3 RARP request.
4 RARP response.
5 Dynamic RARP request.
6 Dynamic RARP reply.
7 Dynamic RARP error.
8 InARP request.
9 InARP reply.

Sender hardware address
HLen bytes in length.

Sender protocol address
PLen bytes in length.

Target hardware address
HLen bytes in length.

Target protocol address
PLen bytes in length.

Vulnerabilities for this protocol (from CVE)

CVE ID Protocol Source Port Targetport

TCP/IP Protocols:

AHARP/RARPATMPBGP-4COPSDCAPDHCPDNS
DVMRPEGPEIGRPESPFANPFingerFTPHSRP
HTTPICMPICMPv6IGMPIGRPIMAP4IPIPDC
IPv6ISAKMPL2FL2TPLDAPMARSMobile IPNARP
NetBIOS/IPNHRPNTPOSPFPIMPOP3PPTPRadius
RIP2RIPng for IPv6RLOGINRSVPRTSPRUDPS-HTTPSCTP
SLPSMTPSNMPSOCKS V5TACACSTALITCPTELNET
TFTPUDPVan JacobsonVRRPWCCPX-WindowXOT