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RFC 1826 http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1826
RFC 1827 http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1827
RFC 2406 http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2406

The IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) seeks to provide confidentiality and integrity by encrypting data to be protected and placing the encrypted data in the data portion of the IP ESP. Depending on the user's security requirements, this mechanism may be used to encrypt either a transport-layer segment (e.g., TCP, UDP, ICMP, IGMP) or an entire IP datagram. Encapsulating the protected data is necessary to provide confidentiality for the entire original datagram.

ESP may appear anywhere after the IP header and before the final transport-layer protocol. The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority has assigned Protocol Number 50 to ESP. The header immediately preceding an ESP header will always contain the value 50 in its Next Header (IPv6) or Protocol (IPv4) field. ESP consists of an unencrypted header followed by encrypted data. The encrypted data includes both the protected ESP header fields and the protected user data, which is either an entire IP datagram or an upper-layer protocol frame (e.g., TCP or UDP).

Security association identifier (SPI)

Opaque transform data
(variable length)

32 bits
IP ESP structure

Security association identifier
The SPI is a 32-bit pseudo-random value identifying the security association for this datagram. If no security association has been established, the value of the SPI field is 0x00000000. An SPI is similar to the SAID used in other security protocols. The name has been changed because the semantics used here are not exactly the same as those used in other security protocols

Vulnerabilities for this protocol (from CVE)

CVE ID Protocol Source Port Targetport

TCP/IP Protocols:

AHARP/RARPATMPBGP-4COPSDCAPDHCPDNS
DVMRPEGPEIGRPESPFANPFingerFTPHSRP
HTTPICMPICMPv6IGMPIGRPIMAP4IPIPDC
IPv6ISAKMPL2FL2TPLDAPMARSMobile IPNARP
NetBIOS/IPNHRPNTPOSPFPIMPOP3PPTPRadius
RIP2RIPng for IPv6RLOGINRSVPRTSPRUDPS-HTTPSCTP
SLPSMTPSNMPSOCKS V5TACACSTALITCPTELNET
TFTPUDPVan JacobsonVRRPWCCPX-WindowXOT