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RFC 1883 http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1883
RFC 1827 http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1827

IP version 6 (IPv6) is a new version of the Internet Protocol based on IPv4. IPv4 and IPv6 are demultiplexed at the media layer. For example, IPv6 packets are carried over Ethernet with the content type 86DD (hexadecimal) instead of IPv4ís 0800.

IPv6 increases the IP address size from 32 bits to 128 bits, to support more levels of addressing hierarchy, a much greater number of addressable nodes and simpler auto-configuration of addresses. Scalability of multicast addresses is introduced. A new type of address called an anycast address is also defined, to send a packet to any one of a group of nodes.

Improved support for extensions and options - IPv6 options are placed in separate headers that are located between the IPv6 header and the transport layer header. Changes in the way IP header options are encoded allow more efficient forwarding, less stringent limits on the length of options, and greater flexibility for introducing new options in the future. The extension headers are: Hop-by-Hop Option, Routing (Type 0), Fragment, Destination Option, Authentication, Encapsulation Payload.

Flow labeling capability - A new capability has been added to enable the labeling of packets belonging to particular traffic flows for which the sender requests special handling, such as non-default Quality of Service or real-time service.

The IPv6 header structure is as follows:

4
4
16
24
32 bits

Ver.

Priority

Flow label

Payload length

Next header

Hop limit


Source address
(128 Bites)


Destination address
(128 bites)

IPv6 header structure

Version
Internet Protocol Version number (IPv6 is 6).

Priority
Enables a source to identify the desired delivery priority of the packets. Priority values are divided into ranges: traffic where the source provides congestion control and non-congestion control traffic.

Flow label
Used by a source to label those products for which it requests special handling by the IPv6 router. The flow is uniquely identified by the combination of a source address and a non-zero flow label.

Payload length
Length of payload (in octets).

Next header
Identifies the type of header immediately following the IPv6 header.

Hop limit
8-bit integer that is decremented by one by each node that forwards the packet. The packet is discarded if the Hop Limit is decremented to zero.

Source address
128-bit address of the originator of the packet.

Destination address
128-bit address of the intended recipient of the packet.

Vulnerabilities for this protocol (from CVE)

CVE ID Protocol Source Port Targetport

TCP/IP Protocols:

AHARP/RARPATMPBGP-4COPSDCAPDHCPDNS
DVMRPEGPEIGRPESPFANPFingerFTPHSRP
HTTPICMPICMPv6IGMPIGRPIMAP4IPIPDC
IPv6ISAKMPL2FL2TPLDAPMARSMobile IPNARP
NetBIOS/IPNHRPNTPOSPFPIMPOP3PPTPRadius
RIP2RIPng for IPv6RLOGINRSVPRTSPRUDPS-HTTPSCTP
SLPSMTPSNMPSOCKS V5TACACSTALITCPTELNET
TFTPUDPVan JacobsonVRRPWCCPX-WindowXOT