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RFC 783 http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc783
RFC 1350 http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc1350

The Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) uses UDP. TFTP supports file writing and reading; it does not support directory service of user authorization.

Commands

The following are TFTP commands:

Command Description
Read Request Request to read a file.
Write Request Request to write to a file.
File Data Transfer of file data.
Data Acknowledge Acknowledgement of file data.
Error Error indication.

Parameters
TFTP Read and Write Request commands use the following parameters:

Parameter Description
Filename The name of the file, expressed in quotes, where the protocol is to perform the read or write operation.
Mode Datamode. The format of the file data that the protocol is to transfer. The following formats are possible:

NetASCII Standard ASCII character format.

Octet Eight-bit binary data.

Mail Standard ASCII character format with username in place of filename.

TFTP data and data acknowledge commands use the following parameters:

Command Description
Block Block number or sequence number of the current frame of file data.
Data First part of the file data displayed for TFTP data frames.
TFTP Errors TFTP error frames contain an error code in parentheses followed by the error message, as follows:
(0000) Unknown Error.
(0001) File not found.
(0002) Access violation.
(0003) Out of disk space.
(0004) Illegal TFTP operation.
(0005) Unknown Transfer ID.
(0006) Filename already exists.
(0007) Unknown user.

Vulnerabilities for this protocol (from CVE)

CVE ID Protocol Source Port Targetport
CVE-1999-0183udpany69
Description: Linux implementations of TFTP would allow access to files outside the restricted directory.

TCP/IP Protocols:

AHARP/RARPATMPBGP-4COPSDCAPDHCPDNS
DVMRPEGPEIGRPESPFANPFingerFTPHSRP
HTTPICMPICMPv6IGMPIGRPIMAP4IPIPDC
IPv6ISAKMPL2FL2TPLDAPMARSMobile IPNARP
NetBIOS/IPNHRPNTPOSPFPIMPOP3PPTPRadius
RIP2RIPng for IPv6RLOGINRSVPRTSPRUDPS-HTTPSCTP
SLPSMTPSNMPSOCKS V5TACACSTALITCPTELNET
TFTPUDPVan JacobsonVRRPWCCPX-WindowXOT